The Bullying of A Hidden Minority…Do School Program Approaches Prevent Bullying In Transgender Youth?   Leave a comment

Keywords: Transgender youth, bullying, safety, risk factors, youth empowerment,  Transgender youth services.

If I could change one thing, it would be that all people

were required to understand that there are more than two

categories of gender. That way other kids won’t have to

suffer like I did.

—17-year-old transboy (quoted in Brill & Pepper,

2008, p. 67). [1]

Our biggest issue with the school was their lack of

knowledge. At first it was suggested that we switch

schools to one that is 12 miles away. Thanks.

—Parent of a 7-year-old transboy (quoted in Brill &

Pepper, 2008, p. 154).[2]

[1] Ibid.

[2] Kathleen E. Rands. (2009). Considering Transgender People in Education : A Gender-Complex Approach. Journal of Teacher Education, 60, 419 – 431. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from


These research articles will contribute to my study of gender identity development and the bullying of transgender children/youth since most individuals are unaware of the young transgenders and their struggles in life. Transgender studies began in the 1990’s and this literature review examines transgender children and youths being bullied due to their innate reactions and behavior while exploring the gradual help of bullying prevention programs that affect gender development. According to Kessler and McKenna (1978), “Gender is an anchor

[1] Kathleen E. Rands. (2009). Considering Transgender People in Education : A Gender-Complex Approach. Journal of Teacher Education, 60, 419 – 431. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from

[2] Ibid.

and once people decide what you are they interpret everything you do in light of that” (p. 6). While, sex is the biological component, gender is the psychological and social component.

In order to understand gender based discrimination, or transphobia, it is necessary to understand transgender. And to understand transgender, we must appreciate what gender is, and how it works as well as their trials and tribulations. According to Coates et al. (1991) & Money (1994) & Zucker & Bradley (1995) & Di Ceglie (1998):

The experience of gender identity disorders in children, and particularly adolescents, creates considerable problems for them, their families and their social environment. There is still uncertainty as to the aetiology of this condition. However, a multi-factorial model including biological, psychological and social factors is commonly supported” (Ceglie & Freedman & McPherson & Richardson, 2002).[1]


What is a transgender child?

A child’s consciousness develops an understanding of how he/she is living and is expected to live in society resulting in their gender identity. We all begin the same. All children develop identically until about three months of pregnancy[2]  then the differences in gender take place. The strong biological make-up, chromosomes and hormones all begin to establish the basis of gender identity early in life for transgender children as Kohlberg (1966) commented, “As an internalized aspect of self, it is virtually immutable”  (Gagne & Tewksbury & McGaughey, 1997, 479). Research has found that during early childhood behavior such as, cross

[1] Ceglie, D. D. & Freedman, D. & McPherson, S. & Richardson, P. (2002). Children and Adolescents Referred to a Specialist Gender Identity Development Service: Clinical Features and Demographic Characteristics. Retrieved April 8 2011, from

[2] Golombok, S. & Fivush, R. (1994). Gender Development. New York: Cambridge University Press.

gender and cross dressing to be somewhat acceptable yet, after the toddler stage of a child they become more pressured to conform to society’s rules of gender. (para. Gagne & Tewksbury & McGaughey, 1997, 488).

What is gender identity disorder? GID is a disorder described by children and adolescents as a distressing feeling of discomfort or anger concerning one’s biological sex. The mind does not match the body. The disorder typically begins in childhood with gender identity issues and carries into adolescence.  The mirror image is in conflict with the mind’s image (Benjamin 1966; Green and Money 1969; Bolin 1987; Docter 1990).[1]

For young children behavioral signs exist such as, a strong preference for wearing clothes that are for the opposite gender (girls in jeans whereas boys in dresses), during fantasy play the role and sex roles are preferred as being a member of the other gender, preference for playmates of the other gender, verbally expressing that he/she is the opposite gender and showing characteristics and desires to participate in events and games that are stereotypical of the other gender. Young transgender boys disassociate themselves with their penis (essentialism), reject boy sex typed toys and games (constructivism). Whereas girls, reject the social rules of sitting down on a toilet (essentialism), has desire to grow a penis and refuses what puberty will do to their physical body. Adolescents are similar in that they chose the other genders type of clothing, verbalize a desire to be the other gender and they have a desire to be treated as the opposite gender but, they focus on passing as the other gender and believe that their behavior and feelings are of the other gender. They have a desire to stop primary and secondary sex characteristics by requesting hormone treatments.

[1] Milton, D. (2002). Title: Sex and Gender are Different: Sexual Identity and Gender Identity are Different. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 7(3), 320-334. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from

The essentialism theory reported gender identity as being innate. Gender is seen as a part of nature or essence of one’s biological makeup. This theory was described in Empire State College’s Mini-lecture as the, “…approaches that investigate biological factors influencing gender differentiation, including those which are pre-natal and environmentally caused.” Hence, children and adolescents that express transgender feelings and behaviors are hardwired before birth. This notion refers to all members of a particular gender group sharing common characteristics and behaviors.

Whereas constructivism, researchers argue that it is a theory that gender identity development is constructed through social structure such as,interactions with people or their environments as Gagne, & Tewksbury & McGaughey (1997) stated:

Gender is achieved in social interaction with others, and to achieve accountability as a social actor, one must enact gender in ways that are socially recognizable and decodeable (West and Fenstermaker 1995). But gender is also “a feature of social relationships, and its idiom derives from the institutional arena in which those relationships come to life”     (West and Fenstermaker 1995, 21; West and Zimmerman 1987). Further, gender and gender belief systems are inherent components of the social infrastructure (Lorber 1994).  (p.479).

Then there is environmentalism, in which Dr. Money was the first to proclaim all children are psychosexually neutral at birth, hence, our gender is a consequence of the nurture we receive as children. His theory composed of parents assigning a gender to an infant and then rearing the child according to their choice.

One aspect that demonstrates the power of the gender environmentalism theory is discussed in the book, As Nature made him: The boy who was raised a girl, regarding Brenda/David’s development of gender identity in the book, was when she entered kindergarten and proceeded to  go to the bathroom standing up. Part of societal practices is for a girl to sit when going to the bathroom. Because this was impossible for her/him to do, it resulted in her/him being barred from the girl’s bathroom and threatened by the boys as Colapinto stated, “Brenda was reduced to sneaking out to a back alley near the school to urinate” (para., Wolfe).[1] Dr. Money had responded that, “…Benda’s continuing unorthodoxies in the bathroom resulted solely from the condition of her uncompleted vaginal surgery” (Colapinto, 2000, p.93).

The term transgender refers to individuals whose gender expression and identity do not conform to society’s expectations. Unlike sex that’s biologically and chromosomally determined, gender is a social construct that places girls and boys into distinct categories. Transgender children and adolescents identify and present themselves in many different ways. In doing so, transgendered children and adolescents push the boundaries of both sex and gender through attributes such as, dress, behavior, hair style, mannerisms, speaking and walking.

What is bullying?

[1] Paraphrased from earlier assignment. March 6, 2011.

They called me terms such a tranny and

lesbian . . . because they thought I was a girl

and I was dressed and acted like a boy. (F–M,

14 (P4)[1]

It started to get more aggressive like

that physical acts against me outside

school and within school, at one point it

actually resulted in a knife bein’ pulled at me.

(M–F, 16 (P8))[2]

A lot of the older kids weren’t [okay] and they

used to shout stuff in the playground or if I was

walking in a corridor or stuff like  that . . . like [wolf] whistling or faggot

or puff or you know that sort of thing. (M–F16 (P6)[3]

[1]Wilson, I. & Griffin, C. & Wren, B. (2005). The Interaction between Young People with Atypical Gender Identity Organization and their Peers. Journal of Health Psychology, 10. 307.  Retrieved March 11, 2011, from

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

Bullying is a form of repeated violence that is directed by one or more students towards another student. According to Horn & Romeo (2010), “Peers and peer relationships (or lack of them) are a critical part of adolescent’s social worlds and play an important developmental role in adolescent’s lives.” (p. 7). When a child is bullied, they are never the same as these peers negatively influence their identity and self-esteem. Bullying is abuse. Bullying is the harassment and violence against transgender children and adolescents who do not deserve this treatment. These acts are usually self-destructive, selfish and/or sadistic. Bullies thrive on their own desire for the thrill of aggression, control and power usually within groups of a child’s peers.

Rivers (1995) reported the onset of homophobic bullying in school begins between the ages of 10 and 11 years of age (Varjas & Dew & Marshall & Graybill & Singh & Meyersm, (2008, 64). Gender nonconforming children and adolescents are at a higher risk of violence and harassment in schools. Diaz & Kosciw & Greytak (2010) reported a recent national survey of LGBT secondary school students, “73.6% reported routinely hearing homophobic remarks at  school and less than a fifth reported that school staff regularly intervened  when these remarks were made in their presence” (p.15). So it appears that not only are peers bullying but educational staff refuses to acknowledge the abuse and to help the victims which is another form of abuse.

Can transgender youths trust the teachers in a hostile school environment? 

In a perfect world, schools are considered safe social institutions and protective zones for the transgender child and adolescent from physical and mental harm. Not only are they hostile environments from peers but, teachers also fuel the fire by not helping a transgender child or not knowing how to help a transgender child for instance, Espelage & Swearer’s (2008) study of 3,450 students (ages 13 – 18), 88% stated homophobic remarks were used at least some times when teachers were present, and many students reported that teachers and staff did not intervene during these incidents.

Additionally, there is what is called, gender stereotyped education where gender oppression, demoralizing and alienation takes place. In the classroom, the binary gender system is in place. Segregation takes place when teachers address the class as boys and girls as Brill & Pepper, (2008), stated, “…in the common  practice of having boy and girl bathrooms, and when teachers segregate students into boy and girl groups or lines” (Rand, 2009, 424).

Another problem addressing transgender children and adolescents is the trust or lack of it in communicating openly with teachers, school counselors, and parents. Within this dilemma is a concern that many are unaware of their school’s policy or the enforcement of it to protect these minority children. (para., Hall, 2006, 152).

As Elia (1993) & Gill (1998) & Peters (2003) reported, Federal legislation Title IX implemented policies and programs to stop sexual harassment while ensuring a safe place. School districts have followed the regulations yet, transgender youth are still being bullied (para. Hall, 2006, 51). Although, the concept is beneficial, it is difficult to change people’s thinking as Hall ( 2006) remarked:

Though school anti-discrimination policies represent a viable strategy for helping to alleviate some of the issues confronted by LGBT youth, policy implementation does not always bring about a change in mindsets. As researchers have noted, school staff can possess homophobic views or be unconscious as to how their personal biases negatively affect their relationships with students (Hall, 2006, 152).

Teacher preparation programs were described in the research as the teacher’s responsibilities of classroom practices revealed that they were unprepared in addressing these issues. Many teachers lack the knowledge, skills and confidence with which to recognize and challenge bullying. As Macgillivray & Jennings (2008) stated, “The incidences of homophobia, heteronormativity, heterosexism, and transphobia within education extend beyond actual classrooms and schools.” As bullying continues in classrooms and hallways, it is the educational staff who are sending out a message that these actions are acceptable.

What are the effects and risk factors of bulling? 

Victims of bullying experience effects that are long and short term from this abuse hindering them emotionally and mentally as well as physically. It is important to remember that long term dilemmas are not necessarily due to physical harm as actions and words do its permanent damage to the child. Self-respect, self-concept and self-esteem become low in their own gender identity. The gender development of these children becomes stagnated. Depression, lack of self-esteem, isolation, a sense of powerlessness, bitterness, anger and rebellion are the results of bullying. Erikson’s fourth stage of the school age child, the Industry vs. Inferiority which develops a sense of self-worth by refining skills has failed resulting in a sense of inferiority, lack of trust, failure and incompetence.[1] Young children have also been reported experiencing higher long term stress levels. In the process of becoming demoralized academic performances decrease and a fear sets in that school is no longer a safe zone. Furthermore, there is relational bullying which occurs when students disrupt another student’s peer relationships through leaving them out, gossiping, whispering and spreading rumors. It includes students turning their back on another student, giving them the silent treatment, ostracizing or scapegoating.[2]

Bullying starts as early as early as preschool with children using relational aggression. As children grow older they go through a transition stage from elementary to middle school where young transgenders are faced with increases in bullying behaviors. According to Varjas & Dew & Marshall & Graybill & Singh, S., Meyersm J., (2008):

Although little is known about the causes and risk factors associated

[1] Erik Erikson’s 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development.  (1997). Retrieved March 3, 2011, from

[2]What is Bullying?. (2011). Retrieved April 10, 2011, from

with sexual minority bullying, some formative research has suggested that beliefs related to homophobia and heterosexism, gender role conformity, the social acceptability of anti-gay pejoratives and the invisibility of sexual minority status may contribute to sexual minority” (p.61).

Existing literature suggests that the youth are at high risk for a number of health problems including suicide and attempts, harassment, substance abuse. Children and young people are socially ostracized and the results are children and adolescents are experiencing alienation on different levels for instance in repercussions of behavior, attitudes, peers and beliefs. As Rands (2009) remarked, “Young transgender students are disproportionately likely to face harassment in school (Bauer, 2002) and are the least likely group of students to believe that their school communities are safe places” (p. 422). A child will carry mental scars of bullying abuse for years. Due to the anger, depression and other complex feelings of a transgender child delinquency, compulsion and inappropriate behavior seems to be an outlet.  

Transgender Youth Statistics

33% of transgender youth have attempted suicide.

55% of transgender youth report being physically attacked

74% of transgender youth reported being sexually harassed at school,

90% of transgender youth reported feeling unsafe at school because of their gender expression

78% reported having been verbally harassed

48% reported having been victims of assault, including assault with a weapon, sexual assault or rape.[1]

 What resources are available for transgender victims of bullying?

[1] (2011). A digital drop-in center serving the transgender community, Retrieved March 15, 2011, from

How do we protect transgender children and adolescents from bullying? First, educational facilities need to enforce and implement anti-bullying policies within the school system. The next step is to train teachers and prepare them for nonconforming gender students, to encourage teachers on staff to come out of the closet as it were and openly discuss personal transgender issues. It is interesting to note that the essentialist view is revealed in questioning factual truths about gays in general, the LGBT specifically as Talburt (2004) described, “Although these changes can open dialogue and offer young people resources, their basis in ideas of youth at-risk can perpetuate essentialist views of who is really gay and who is not-and of what different groups need”   (p. 119).

With this acquired knowledge teachers have begun to look outside the box in teaching tolerance and acceptance to their students. Incorporating school based support systems such as, teachers/staff and student clubs that interweave anti-bullying policies. This can in fact, create a safer environment, raise self-esteem and self-respect for transgender children and adolescents. As Kosciw et al. (2008) & Russell et al, (2001) commented, “LGBT youth who have access to supportive teachers and other staff report feeling safer while at school and are less likely to be absent or have other school troubles than students without supportive staff”  (Diaz & Kosciw & Greytak, 2010, 15). Teachers have begun to implement new strategies such as guest speakers and testimonials of the victims of bullying which brings the school environment to a place of compassion and trust.

Not only can bullying be seen in the schools, peer groups and communities but, it can also be stopped in the schools, peer groups and communities. Identity expression and discussing diversity creates a positive environment which are supported and encouraged as Horn & Romeo, (2010) reported, “…safe schools practices alter the peer context for LGBT students by reducing the negative attitudes and beliefs held by heterosexual students.” (p. 9). When schools took action on bullying, violence and harassment students had a greater connection to school personnel. These programs make connections that are related to a greater sense of safety. Schools that enforce policies included reporting bullying occurrences which send a message to the community that violence and harassment will be unacceptable. Each classroom at every level is meant to be safe for a positive gender identity development of all children and adolescents.

Moreover, there is, Let’s Be Friends Early Childhood Bullying Prevention Program (Pre-k – 2) involving the early years of a child’s life that are crucial for healthy cognitive, social and emotional development. Incorporating the “bully free” message in the classroom by encouraging tolerance, kindness and bully free behavior.[1]

Also available, There’s No Excuse For Peer Abuse Elementary School Program (Grades 3-5). This program teaches students positive bystander behavior. Children who learn respect and empathy will turn those principles into words and acts of kindness which has a huge impact on changing the culture and climate of their school community.[2]

Another anti-bullying program is the, Stand Up – Speak Out Program and Project (Grades 5 to 8), which is implemented as a club or in a after school center. Middle school is a turning point physically, emotionally and socially. It is a crucial point in lifetime learning. Adolescents develop positive coping skills or risky ones. They practice protective and coping skills to make good choices, socially responsible decisions and stay engaged in school.[3]

[1] Evidence Based Programs. (2011). Retrieved April 14, 2011, from

[2] Ibid.

[3] Evidence Based Programs. (2011). Retrieved April 14, 2011, from

As schools become safer environments slowly follows our community and our nation. There are hundreds of available anti-bully programs available today in which some incorporate teacher, parent, and school partnership workshops.

LGBT students share their experiences attending a statewide Safe School Summit which incorporate skills building workshops. Empowerment intervention and safer schools are the themes as strengthening skills, catharsis and ways of learning how to confront bullies was described resulting in harmless environments. Empowerment is used in the context of social work, empowering students to make the right choices and to gain control as most students felt powerless and isolated.  According to Craig & Edmon & Tucker & Wagner (2007), “The empowerment approach is a theory that has a long history in social work service with marginalized or disadvantaged populations. It has been applied to a myriad of social problems…” (p. 239).

In developing an anti-bullying program there are some jurisdictions in the United States that have successfully implemented the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program in schools. Olweus is a Norwegian program, developed in the mid 1980’s, resulting in a 50 percent reduction in bullying behavior. The program emphasizes community involvement and the establishment of clear rules and policies against bullying.[1] This means by creating school wide policies, training staff on implementation of the program, providing adequate adult supervision, and holding assemblies to discuss bullying as a school wide issue and within the community, the anti-bully message gets out. According to continuing surveys performed by the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, the program contributed to the following results:

[1] Developing an Anti-Bullying Program: Increasing Safety, Reducing Violence. (2006). Retrieved April 11, 2011, from

17% less name-calling 13% fewer false rumors

19% less exclusion from groups  21% fewer threats

18% less hitting and kicking  12% less racial name-calling[1]

Each state and most cities have transgender youth clubs and organizations to help with bulling on a psychological, physical and emotional level. For instance in Sarasota, Florida they have Also Out Youth,  which promotes the health and safety of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and questioning youth and strives to end all forms of violence and harassment based on real or perceived sexual orientation. Also offers a youth drop in center, individual support, a youth speaker’s panel, educational and recreational programming, and support groups in Sarasota and surrounding counties. The drop in center and satellite support groups is open to any LGBTIQ youth and their straight allies between the ages of 13-21.  Also’s staff offer HIV testing, counseling, and education, and diversity trainings for public schools, colleges, and private corporations.[2]

However, research has proven that school programs approaches to reducing bullying are relatively ineffective. According to Swearer & Espelage & Vaillancourt & Hymel (2010):

…first most intervention studies have relied on self-report of bullying and victimization, which may not be sufficiently valid and accurate in detecting behavioral change. Second, most anti-bullying programs are not well grounded in a guiding theoretical framework that would inform program development and evaluation. Third, most fail to direct interventions at the social ecology that promotes and sustains bullying perpetration, such as peers and families. Fourth, many of these programs do not address the changing demographics of communities and fail to incorporate factors such as race, disability, and sexual orientation. Finally, schoolwide programs are designed to reach all students, when in fact a relatively small percentage of students are directly engaged in

[1] Ibid.

[2] Also Out Youth. (2011). Retrieved April 11, 2011,

bullying perpetration (typically 10%–20% of students are the perpetrators of bullying). Schoolwide programs seldom include direct intervention for the perpetrators, who  need to be taught how to engage in prosocial behaviors (p. 42).

In summary, research has proven that there are an alarming number of young transgendered children and adolescents who are subjected to discrimination or harassment because of their sexual orientation or gender nonconformity (D’Augeili & Grossman. 2001; D’Augeili et al.. 2002; Lombardi et al.. 2001; Rose & Mechanic. 2002; Waldo et al., 1998).[1] This paper described the transgender child, bullying effects and risks. The research explored the different positive and negative aspects of bully prevention programs and the examination of the question, Do school program approaches prevent bullying in transgender youth? My concluding answer is yes, by correlating the support, acceptance and willingness to learn by schools, peers and community anti-bullying programs and school program approaches do prevent bullying.

Which programs of bullying prevention programs are effective? My recommendation is it that it takes a combination of all the programs, schools, communities and peers working together in order for a transgender child and adolescent to develop a positive gender identity.

[1] Craig, S. L. Edmon, & Tucker, W. & Wagner, E. F. (2007). Empowering Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: Lessons Learned From a Safe Schools Summit. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services,20(3), 237. Retrieved April, 1, 2011, from


Colapinto, J. (2001). As nature made him: the boy who was raised as a girl. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

Craig, S. L. Edmon, & Tucker, W. & Wagner, E. F. (2007). Empowering Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: Lessons Learned From a Safe Schools Summit.  Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 20(3), 237. Retrieved April, 1, 2011, from wering%20Lesbian%2C%20Gay%2C%20Bisexual%2C%20and%20Transgender%20Youth%3A%20Lessons%20Learned%20From%20a%20Safe%20Schools%20Summit&auth or=Shelley%20L%20Craig%3B%20Edmon%20W%20Tucker%3B%20Eric%20F%20W  agner&issn=10538720&title=Journal%20of%20Gay%20%26%20Lesbian%20Social%20 Services&volume=20&issue=3&date=20070701&spage=237&id=doi:10.1080%2F1053            8720802235310&sid=ProQ_ss&genre=article&lang=en

Diaz, E. M. & Kosciw, J. G.& Greytak, E. A. (2010). School Connectedness for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: In-School Victimization and Institutional Supports. Prevention Researcher, 17(3), 15-17.

Espelage, D. L. & Swearer, S. M. (2008). Addressing Research Gaps in the Intersection between Homophobia and Bullying. Retrieved March 11, 2011, from  %22in%22+the+Intersection+between+Homophobia+AND+Bullying)&bdata=JmRiPWE5aCZkYj1hd2gmZGI9YWhsJmRiPWFjaCZkYj1vaWgmZGI9YnRoJmRiPXJjaCZkYj1            yemgmZGI9dWZoJmRiPWNwaCZkYj1paWgmZGI9ZWhoJmRiPWVpaCZkYj1lcmljJ            mRiPWZtaCZkYj04Z2gmZGI9aHhoJmRiPWhjaCZkYj1oaWEmZGI9aGxoJmRiPWxpa            CZkYj1mNWgmZGI9bW5oJmRiPW10aCZkYj1uNWgmZGI9dGZoJmRiPXBkaCZkYj            1wemgmZGI9cGJoJmRiPXBzeWgmZGI9YndoJmRiPXJsaCZkYj1zaWgmZGI9dHJoJmRiPXZvaCZ0eXBlPTAmc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZl

Gagne, P. & Tewksbury, R. & McGaughey, D. (1997). Coming out and Crossing over: Identity Formation and Proclamation in a Transgender Community. Gender and Society, 11(4), 478-508.

Horn, S. S. & Romeo, K. E. (2010). Peer Contexts for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Reducing Stigma, Prejudice, and Discrimination. Prevention Researcher, 7(4), 7-10. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from    =256b7473-3b96-4e7b-9a98-41cc7da5396b%40sessionmgr12

Introducing Gender Identity Development: Empire State College mini lecture. (p. 8).Retrieved February 18,2011, from

Kessler, S. & McKenna, W. Gender: an ethonomethodological approach. (1978). Retrieved April 12, 2011, from            z2EWfOQ&hl=en&ei=g8G6TY2gK4Ggtwfoq7TDBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=anchor&f=false

Macgillivray, I. K.  & Jennings, T. (2008).  Content Analysis Exploring Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual,  and Transgender Topics in Foundations of Education Textbooks. Journal of Teacher Education, 59. Retrieved March 8, 2011, from

Rands, K. E. (2009). Considering Transgender People in Education: A Gender-Complex Approach. Journal of Teacher Education, 60, 419- 431.

Swearer, S. M.  & Espelage, D. L. &  Vaillancourt, T. & Hymel, S. (2010). What Can Be Done About School Bullying? Linking Research to Educational Practice. Educational researcher, 39 (1), 38-47. Retrieved March 16, 2011, from   

Talburt, S.  (2004). Constructions of LGBT Youth: Opening up Subject Positions. Theory into Practice, 43(2), 116-121. Retrieved April 1, 2011, from

Varjas, K., Dew, B., Marshall, M., Graybill, E., Singh, S., Meyersm J., (2008). Bullying in Schools towards Sexual Minority Youth. Journal of School Violence, 7(2), 59-86. Retrieved March 8, 2011, from– edc1-44c8-ac33-9e353dce70cf%40sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=ehh   &AN=31590414

End Notes

 1. Kathleen E. Rands. (2009). Considering Transgender People in Education : A Gender-Complex Approach. Journal of Teacher Education, 60, 419 – 431. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from

2. Ibid.

3. Ceglie, D. D. & Freedman, D. & McPherson, S. & Richardson, P. (2002). Children and Adolescents Referred to a Specialist Gender Identity Development Service: Clinical Features and Demographic Characteristics. Retrieved April 8 2011, from

4. Golombok, S. & Fivush, R. (1994). Gender Development. New York: Cambridge University Press.

5. Milton, D. (2002). Title: Sex and Gender are Different: Sexual Identity and Gender Identity are Different. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 7(3), 320-334. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from

6. (March 6, 2011) .Paraphrased from earlier assignment.

7. Wilson, I. & Griffin, C. & Wren, B. (2005). The Interaction between Young People with Atypical Gender Identity Organization and their Peers. Journal of Health Psychology, 10. 307.  Retrieved March 11, 2011, from

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid.

10. Erik Erikson’s 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development.  (1997). Retrieved March 3, 2011, from

11. What is Bullying?. (2011). Retrieved April 10, 2011, from

12. (2011). A digital drop-in center serving the transgender community, Retrieved March 15, 2011, from

13. Evidence Based Programs. (2011). Retrieved April 14, 2011, from

14. Ibid.

15. Evidence Based Programs. (2011). Retrieved April 14, 2011, from

16. Developing an Anti-Bullying Program: Increasing Safety, Reducing Violence. (2006). Retrieved April 11, 2011, from

17. Ibid.

18. Also Out Youth. (2011). Retrieved April 11, 2011,

19. Craig, S. L. Edmon, & Tucker, W. & Wagner, E. F. (2007). Empowering Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: Lessons Learned From a Safe Schools Summit. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 20(3), 237. Retrieved April, 1, 2011, from


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