Archive for the ‘Gender’ Tag

My Online Free Class and Twitter   Leave a comment

twitter-mdFollow me and I will follow you @MyModule1                                 









Come one Come all!!! My free gender, sex and sexuality class is going live   Leave a comment

My Gender, sex and sexuality class is going live 4/5/15. Check it out, register, complete the 60 minute class and receive a certificate.

class2015-03-24_1159    register2015-03-24_0335

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Update on my creating a class unit   Leave a comment

I just created this storyboard for the first page of the class. Check out how I’m doing

Story_board_Rethinking_gender_sex_and_sexuality 2



Storyboard that. (2015). Retrieved from,


Module 1 of Gender, sex, and sexuality   Leave a comment

I am creating a module for a course called Rethinking Gender, sex, and sexuality. I just completed my first post. Would love some feedback on the video.

                                 click here       set_14_forward    Gender, sex, and sexuality Module 1



Variability In Adult Learners   Leave a comment

One of the great challenges as an educator as Long, described, “…is to discover the problematic element that will arouse and maintain the interest of adult learners regardless of their global or specific motives for learning” (as cited in Galbraith, 2004, p. 28). Within a classroom setting there are a variety of adult learner differences for instance, gender, learning styles, ethnicity, culture, and academic ability (Huitt, 1997, para.). Long also suggests other variables for example, the physiological which incorporates vision, hearing, energy, and health. One or more of these could pose as a distraction for the student. The psychosocial variables consist of cognitive characteristics, personality, experiential, and role characteristics. All of these have implications for understanding the adult student.

As a teacher, harnessing the variabilities that my students display and getting the most for them could include cooperative learning in which adult learners are placed in heterogeneous groups as Johnson & Johnson (2000) reported, “…cooperative learning is instruction that involves students working in teams to accomplish a common goal, under conditions that include the following elements: Positive interdependence, individual accountability, promotive interaction, appropriate use of collaborative skills, and group processing” (Johnson & Johnson, 2000, p. 7 as cited in Felder & Brent, 2007, p. 2). In my opinion it is important to focus on who is being grouped together since the idea is that all students learn. What if groups were based on class, gender or race what would the outcome be? Only a small percentage of students would learn.

An idea for psychosocial variables that may help adult learners is to create an inclusive learning environment that will promote student choices, increase self-esteem, motivation, and student freedom. Hollander & Hunt (1963) commented, “…that an individual’s impressions of a situation, including another person, result from three major elements: the situation, other people, and the perceiver (as cited in Galbraith, 2004, p. 32). If an adult learner is uncomfortable and frustrated the psychosocial risk and physiological health issues could increase resulting in the student losing their attention span regarding a subject.

Experiential variables can include participation within a group. According to Long the grouping of adult learners, “In most fortuitously formed groups we should expect to find some individuals with personality and cognitive characteristics that are fine tuned to make the most of the learning opportunity…At the other end of the spectrum, we should also expect to find some adults for whom it will be very difficult to address the content, skill, or task to be learned (as cited in Galbraith, 2004, p. 34).

As a teacher I will propel my students forward by utilizing activates and strategies to motivate learning in which diversity and knowing students various variabilities will become my foundation.

Felder,R. M. & Brent, R. (2007). Cooperative Learning. Retrieved from,
Galbraith, M. W. (2004). Adult Learning Methods: A guide for effective instruction. Malabar: Krieger Publishing Company.
Huitt, W. (1997). Individual differences. Educational Psychology Interactive. Retrieved from, from


My Final Research Results~ Gender And Sexual Orientation Bias Language In Research   Leave a comment


Some say that sexual orientation and gender identity are sensitive issues. I understand. Like many of my generation, I did not grow up talking about these issues. But I learned to speak out because lives are at stake, and because it is our duty under the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to protect the rights of everyone, everywhere ~ UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon

As non-conforming genders and diverse sexual oriented individuals declare their voices in present data and research, it is becoming clear that the responsibility is on the author to examine their questionnaire and free it of bias and discrimination which leads to oppression of marginalized groups. As Murdock & Forsyth (2011) commented, “Growing awareness of the problem of gender-biased language has led to a series of formal guidelines warning authors to exercise care in their word choices (American Psychological Association, 1975, 1977; John Wiley & Sons, 1977; Harper & Row Publishers, Inc., 1976; Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1976)” (p. 40). I am interested in using the lens of gender and sexual orientation to understand and examine how biased language is utilized in contemporary research. Sexual orientation bias in questions can be subtle and awareness is slowly increasing in the field of practice for contemporary social issues of adults in the LGBTIQQ community. Denmark, Russo, Frieze, & Sechzer (1998) stated, “Whenever values and assumptions – whether related to gender, race, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, or socioeconomic status – affect the research process, bias can operate” (p. 582).

We do not live in a binary world because we are a multi-gendered society. Research has proven that almost every continent throughout history, cultures have acknowledged, valued, and incorporated more than two genders for instance, berdache and two-spirit. Terms such as transgender and gay are strictly new constructs that assume three things: that there are only two sexes (male/female), as many as two sexualities (gay/straight), and only two genders (man/woman). (PBS: Independent Television Service, 2011, para). Why does bias language occur in research text? My focus changes to what beliefs, values and assumptions the researchers have that influence their research results as reality is constructed by their own social environments (Merriam & Simpson, 2000, para. p. 97). Our world is complicated and must be reflected in research wording to keep up with the times as the authors realize the importance of respect and participating in social justice in turn, creating social change.

Research Questions

RQ2. Should a researcher have knowledge in the Queer theory and Postmodernism regarding fluid reality to better understand their own bias?
RQ3. Should a researcher explore gender environmentalism, constructivism, and essentialism prior to preparing a questionnaire?
RQ4. Should a researcher understand what sexual orientation bias language means and why it matters?
RQ5. Can political and sociohistorical contexts influence a researcher’s questions?
RQ6. What strategies could be used for researchers to assist in altering the behavior of utilizing gender and sexual orientation bias language?
RQ7. What are my limitations for the research?
RQ8. What are the effects on a participant when bias language is utilized in a research questionnaire?
RQ9. Is there a connection between self-identified sexual orientation, bias and racial/ethnic identities?

Theoretical Perspective

I am using the lens of gender and sexual orientation to see this research through. The framework of ideas that make sense to ground my research study begin with the postmodern ideology as I feel it would be influential in shaping how diversity and power is perceived not only to the author, but to the adult learner within the researcher. It is this concept that reveals that identities are not fixed and do not determine who we are and that it can be changed. The concept confronts social ordering of identities and privileges heterosexuals and all else are considered “the other.” When this theory is applied to their questioning, dialogue will occur as they write and speak to the needs of the participants similar to an educator speaking to the needs of their students in their language (Pappas & Jerman, 2004, para. p. 55).
According to Wolfe (2014), “I believe that this concept questions categories in which researchers need to be more aware of as well as its constructs” as this ideology proposes that there is not one universal truth but many as in the case of multiple genders in our society. As a researcher revises their reality it enables the individual and adult learner to deny some of the influences of radical power therefore, being able to critically reflect on the conscious and distorting influences. McGettigan (1998) commented, “While individuals are not capable of generating completely “emancipated” social environments, nevertheless, the capacity for individuals to redefine reality and, thereby, ascertain “moments of truth” implies that it is possible for individuals to obtain an awareness of their real interests.” It can be argued that the process of redefining reality provides the basis for a solution to the paradox of emancipation. (McGettigan, 1998, para. n.p.). Multiple truths are created through language, through narrative, and through culture. This alternative construction is described by Brookfield (1992):

Postmodernism also holds that meaning is malleable and that there is no core, unequivocal meaning waiting to be discovered at the heart of any speech, written text, or visual image. Similarly, it rejects the idea that adults have a core, fixed identity that can be discovered through investigation and analysis (p. 77).

Social changes influence the use of language therefore, a researcher needs to be sensitive to the needs of the participants as it can influence the researcher-participant relationship. When an author is unprepared, lacking knowledge or sensitivity by using bias wording, inclusion is missing from their critical thinking of how to create a successful questionnaire by using gender neutral words and phrases, by not using the words man or woman, by avoiding the connections between men and their occupation and women by their bodily characteristics. For example, within my qualitative research questionnaire I posed the question to two participants, “How do you feel about the question, are you biological male or female” and revised it after reviewing my research findings to read, “How do you describe your gender?” In this instance, as a researcher I did not intend to exclude participants by the words I chose. I revised the question to create an inclusive environment for the contributor as I critically reflected on my own bias and assumptions as Stephen Brookfield (2012) noted:

These assumptions are sometimes correct. At other times, however, the assumptions we base our decisions on have never been examined. Sometimes we hold these assumptions because people we respect (friends, parents, teachers, religious leaders) have told us they are right. At other times we have picked these assumptions up as we travel through life but can’t say exactly where they’ve come from. To make good decisions in life we need to be sure that these assumptions are accurate and valid – that they fit the situations and decisions we are facing. (p. 12).

Gender and sexual orientation bias language is something that is used daily by most people as August (1986) remarked, “As our language demonstrates, such sexist stereotyping, whether unintentional or deliberate, is not only familiar but fashionable,” which affirms my research perspectives thus far as bias language does exist in today’s research. These results were in agreement with the recommendations of the American Psychological Association’s, “Guidelines for Nonsexist Language” (1975,1977): (1) generic phrasings were perceived to be somewhat biased and sexist, (2) designation and evaluation stereotyping was perceived to be extremely biased and sexist, and (3) neutral alternatives were judged to be appropriately nonsexist.(p.39). It is the postmodern theory that allows a researcher to change lenses and view identities and reality more fluidly. There is also a Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concern in the American Psychological Association which acknowledges language and culture are continually changing. Therefore, language may be ambiguous in reference, history has revealed that homosexuality has been connected with mental illness and criminal behavior and it is these stereotypes that create bias, prejudice, and discrimination (American Psychological Association’s, Guidelines for Nonsexist Language, 1975, 1977. para).
How valid are research results when skewed by participants that do not answer a question truthfully, have a fear of being truthful or selecting the “other” option because their answer is not offered? I found my experiences parallel to defining my identity. When in a lesbian relationship, I checked off single and when married to a transman legally I checked off straight. Neither of the responses were accurate for instance the latter, I was pansexual and not heterosexual according to societal beliefs. Hence, skewing the results. According to Savin-Williams (1994) who analyzed studies of hidden populations [in the closet] found they are problematic due to sampling bias, which may reveal findings that are not representative of the group and may, consequently, provide the foundations for misleading generalizations (Melendez, Bonem, Sember, 2006, para p. 23). I may be part of the hidden population when it comes to any forms or surveys I fill out since being pansexual is not an option. Research questions have what is called the “other” as a response when nothing applies or maybe the participants are not comfortable in discussing their sexual orientation or gender. Many participants will choose “other” because transgender, intersexed, pansexual, queer, or questioning are not given as a response. The idea is to study and understand the “other” in a proactive manner by acknowledging and revealing the existence of the other in a respectful way through language and then sharing the knowledge.

There is a link between politics and change associated with postmodern ethics, and self-conscious (Kong et al., 2002, p.241 cited in Price, 2011. para.). It became clear that postmodernism assumes that social constructions are self-confirming…reality beyond social constructions does not exist (Ratner, 2002, para. n.p.) Whitehead (1929) commented, “…challenged the notion of development as the core of life, arguing that since growth is organic, it cannot be controlled or determined. (Wilson & Hayes, 2000, p.527).
The second framework of ideas that make sense to ground my research study is the queer theory seen through the lens of gender and sexual orientation against the back drop of bias language in research. Cossman (2012) describes the ideology, “Queer theory has developed as an interrogation and deconstruction of the multiple discursive productions of sexuality, seeking to denaturalize the assumed connections between sex, gender and desire” (p. 7). It is based on understanding, inclusion and the breaking down of old assumptions while creating a safe space of acceptance for non-conforming participants, researchers, individuals and adult learners to learn and grow. The foundation is through fluid reality, sensitivity and holistic methods of understanding, learning and teaching through process and by using a contextual lens when viewing genders, sexual orientation, and why they matter (Wolfe, 2014, para.). Pappas & Jerman (2004) remarked:

Looking at the structural component of the contextual lens means focusing on how relationships of power across race, gender, class, disability, and sexual orientation affect the ability of adult learners who represent these groups to participate actively in learning processes (Caffarella and Merriam, 2000; Cervero, Wilson, and Associates, 2000; Tisdell, 1993,1998; p.25).
This ideology is the rethinking of culture and a collection of intellectual philosophies relating between sexual orientation and gender. In order for a researcher or adult leaner to explore the concept of identity they must first critically reflect on and challenge their own basic assumptions for instance, how is gender constructed and is sexual orientation innate? This is an important phase as this theory can be put to practice by preventing bias language whether in a questionnaire or in every day discourse resulting in social change. Spargo (1999) remarked:

In challenging our most basic assumptions about sex, gender and sexuality, including the oppositions between heterosexual and homosexual, biological sex and culturally determined gender, and man and woman, these thinkers are developing new ways of exploring the issue of human identity (p. 7).

Research Methodology

My qualitative research incorporated many different ways in finding answers although limitations were apparent in my sampling. I was only able to interview two individuals, a straight woman and a transgender man. What made it more difficult was the mandatory number of questions that could be asked on the second inquiry, I was confined to only five questions. I believe these barriers to obtain data intensified as both responses to my questionnaire were received by e-mail. No body language could be used or other variables such as tone of voice or eye contact. These factors meant relying more on scholarly reporting in the field including articles and journals, YouTube videos, classroom videos, and basing the study on action research as Merriam & Simpson (2000) reported, “…is one of analyzing, getting facts, identifying the problem, planning and taking action on the problem…” (p. 125). I selected my focus, identified theoretical perspectives, focused on research questions, collected data, analyzed and now reporting my findings as my plan for my research is to continue learning and growing to share my knowledge.

This type of investigating according to Denzin & Lincoln (2000) was, “…born out of concern to understand the other” (p. 2). I took this quote to heart. I began with a journal that incorporated showing dates of research, important quotes that could help in the progression of my study, ah-ha moments, questions, struggles, realizations, and what stood out for me. For instance one aha moment came when I began to link research bias language, postmodernism, and education as I have found that the ideology of the conception of same sex relations incorporates the examining of the of homosexual revealing no clear type of a person, and opening up multiple truths. It is the old closets that weaken and the new closets that grow. The type of participants has changed and new ways of thinking help in recognizing diversity. The approach is more action oriented, active, reflexive, and reflective as it is decentred, and deconstructed. It opens the door to dialogue on culture and politics.

My research methodology included viewing theorist videos. Libby Tisdell suggests in her video that adult educators are too narrow minded in reading only research within the adult learning field and encourages more collaboration across other education fields. “I just think it is absolutely crucial if we are serious about educating that we have to look at the multiple ways that people construct knowledge and this is also related to culture using what she says are “…the not strictly rational ways of knowing, such as how people connect to spirituality through music, poetry and imagination” (Tisdell, n.d.).
My research methods led to the writing of a poem:

As I reflect on language and its bias against gender and sexual orientation with research, I still have hope that one day change will occur in how researchers use their words that harm others.
I’m tired and yet my mind wanders…language has power
Before I lay me down to sleep
I pray for a world where language
is not biased
against gender
against sexual orientation
as we know the pain runs deep
One that takes responsibility for
and acknowledges
gender stereotyping
and learn how
not to hit us
below our core
as we know the pain runs deep
Let me dream of questions
for my research
where there are no labels
where hidden populations
can be seen and heard
where there’s not a
sexist word
Don’t always assume we all are
Don’t always assume
when using a pronoun
the world just needs to realize
what has been done
and it’s time to
make it right
as we know the pain runs deep
Realize how bias is seen and heard
every day in our words
our songs
our narratives
break the chain
to make the change
as we know the pain runs deep
In today’s research
the time has come to act
not just to dream
but make it a reality
as we know the pain runs deep.

While in the midst of my research I created a visual representation of my progress:



            As an adult learner, researcher and individual in order to grow intellectually, mentally and spiritually I must participate and invite inclusion to help create a social change process. Not everyone in society is willing to critically reflect on sexual orientation and gender let alone associate it with bias language used in inquiry. What has emerged for me is a new lens, a perspective on social issues that have been in place due to traditional values and beliefs. While some authors understand the repercussions and are self-directed in abiding and following written guidelines for example, in using correct pronouns, others must be informed and directed to use proper language. This theme is similar in education. There are adult learners that benefit from in class settings though dependent on a teacher for being told what to learn as in Freire’s (1993) banking concept of education where the teacher teaches and the students are taught, where face to face contact is part of their learning process as they are comfortable within that environment.   Whereas, in education other students use their autonomy and self-direction for example, in distance learning, to participate while taking control and responsibility for their learning by using new knowledge to improve their lives and the lives around them. It is these independent students and researchers that critically reflect, become aware and conscious of potential bias. When this occurs they will try and correct it resulting in social change.

            It is interesting to note that if a researcher is uncomfortable with a topic of inquiry their questions could contain stereotypes. When stereotyping, discrimination and bias language is utilized it is the participant that could be confused, frustrated and/or having a sense of not being included in the study as the participant’s truth of reality and the researcher’s truth of reality are opposed.   Debbink & Ornelas (1997) reported, “Not all the people are at the same level in the process. Some are very advanced in understanding their own social reality and consciousness; others are at the beginning stages of understanding. But, the important point is that we all must determine our own reality and not have it predetermined for us by others. (p.27)

RQ1. Can political and sociohistorical contexts influence a researcher’s questions?

A researcher has established assumptions, beliefs and values that are in place prior to writing questions for a survey or questionnaire. Hence, the research process begins with bias feelings or attitudes that can affect the wording of a question posed to a participant.

RQ2. What strategies could be used for researchers to assist in altering the behavior of utilizing gender and sexual orientation bias language?

a) By addressing the issue of bias, judgments, and assumptions a researcher can critically reflect on how their knowledge was constructed and how it can be revised.

b) Using examples of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual persons when referring to activities (parenting or athletic ability) that are erroneously associated only with heterosexual people by many.

c) Using sexual terminology that is relevant to lesbians and gay men as well as bisexual and heterosexual people (when did you first engage in sexual activity? rather than when did you first have sexual intercourse?). (Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concern American Psychological Association, 2004, para. n.p.).

RQ3. What are my limitations for the research?

My limitations ranged from sampling of participants to distance feedback through e-mail only.

RQ4. What are the effects on a participant when bias language is utilized in a research questionnaire?

A participant can feel distressed, frustrated and confused similar to an adult learner. Sunderland (2004) noted, “Gender bias in a text may adversely affect language learning, but I would suggest that this is very hard to prove… Effects on learning of any text are impossible to predict because we cannot predict a given reader’s response to that text, including what that reader will ‘take’ from it (p, 153).

Implications and Conclusion

            In order to understand the philosophical assumptions which my qualitative research is based, is to see that reality is constructed by individuals in interaction with their social worlds (Merriam & Simpson, 2000, para. p. 97). Based on my preliminary findings, I find that research contains bias language when an author confirms the assumptions and beliefs set in society and defends them by using normative justification. There are choices that an author makes in using their power of consciousness and controllability when writing questions. Bias language could be used while the researcher is aware and intentionally selects what is considered the norm.

            The using of bias language in research questionnaires referring to sexual orientation and gender reflects on assumptions, values and beliefs that are malleable, that can be learned as well as unlearned. This can be done by creating a space where constructive discourse and feedback will lead to building upon the effective guidelines which are already in place. According to Mezirow (1981), “…process of becoming critically aware of how and why our presuppositions have come to constrain the way we perceive, understand, and feel about our world…” (p. 22). It will be a place of communication, the breaking down boundaries where responsibility and self-directed actions come together and work as a community to create social change. Friere (1973) commented:

Dialogue is (the) fundamental part of the structure of knowledge (which) needs to be opened to other Subjects in the knowledge process. Thus the class is not a class in the traditional sense, but a meeting place where knowledge is sought and not where it is        transmitted. Just because the educator’s task is not dichotomized into two separate    moments (one in which he/she knows and another in which s/he speaks about this knowledge), education is a permanent act of cognition (p.149).

My field of practice in contemporary social issues for LGBTQQ adult learners led me to the realization that bias language in research begins with the researcher, their assumptions, views and beliefs. Although in qualitative research it is acceptable for the researcher to have their presence within the results, it becomes their responsibility of where to draw the line and avoid bias language.



August, E. R. (1986, December). Men and Language (Anti-Male Bias in Language). National

Coalition of Free Men. Retrieved from,

Brookfield, S. D. (1992) Theoretical Frameworks for understand the field. In Kasworm, C. E.,

Rose, A. D. & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (Eds.), Handbook of Adult and Continuing Education (2010ed.) (71-81). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Brookfield, S. (2012). Developing Critical Thinkers. 1-78. Retrieved from,

Cossman, B. (2012, August). Jindal Global Law Review, 4 (1), 17-35. Retrieved from,

Debbink, G., Ornelas, A. (1997) Cows for Campesinos. In Smith, S., Wills, D., Johns (Eds.)Nurtured by Knowledge Learning to do Participatory Research (12-33). New York, NY: The Apex Press Retrieved from,

Denmark, F., Russo, N. F., Frieze, I. H. & Sechzer, J. A. (1998, July). Guidelines for Avoiding Sexism in Psychological Research: A Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Nonsexist Research. American Psychologist, 43 (7), 582-585. Retrieved from,

Denzin, N. K. & Lincoln, Y. S. (2000). Introduction. The discipline and Practice of Qualitative Research. Handbook of Qualitative Research. New York, NY: Sage Publications.

Independent Television Service, 2011. Retrieved from,

Herek, G. M., Kimmel, D. C., Amaro, H. & Melton, G. B. (1991, September). Avoiding Heterosexist Bias in Psychological Research. American Psychological Association, 46 (9). Retrieved from,

Hyun-Jun Kim, PhD and Karen I. Fredriksen-Goldsen, PhD. Nonresponse to a Question on Self-Identified Sexual Orientation in a Public Health Survey and Its Relationship to Race and Ethnicity. Am J Public Health. 2013 January; 103(1): 67–69. Retrieved from,

McGettigan, T. (1998). Redefining Reality: Epiphany as a Standard of Postmodern Truth. Electronic Journal of Sociology. Retrieved from,

Melendez, R. M., Bonem, L. A., Sember, R. (2006, December). On bodies and research: Transgender issues in health and HIV research articles. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, (3),  21-38. Retrieved from,

Merriam, S. B. & Simpson, E. L. (2000). A guide to research for educators and trainers of adults. Malabar: Krieger Publishing Company.

Murdock, N. L. & Forsyth, D. R. (2011). Is Gender-Biased Language Sexist? A Perceptual Approach. 39-49. Retrieved from  

Pappas, J. P., & Jerman, J. (2004). Developing and Delivering Adult Degree Programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Price , E. (2011). LGBT sexualities in social care research: Improving the evidence base for adult social care practice. Retrieved from, 

Ratner, C. (2002). Subjectivity and Objectivity in Qualitative Methodology. FQS, 3 (3).   Retrieved from,

Spargo, T. (1999) Foucault and Queer Theory. Retrieved from,  y.pdf

Sunderland, J. (2004). New understandings of gender and language classroom research: texts       teacher talk and student talk. Language Teaching Research, 4, 149-173. Retrieved from,

Wilson, A. L. & Hayes, E. R. (2000). Handbook of adult and continuing education. San   Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Wolfe, T. D. (2014). ESC Completing a Unit. Assignment in Strategies for Effective Adult Learning.

(2004). APA Style: Removing Bias in Language. Retrieved from,


Quote: Human Rights Council. (2012, March). Retrieved from,

My Course Description For A Future Class: An Introduction To Diversity, Binary System Failure and Sexual Orientation 101   Leave a comment


Course Description: An Introduction to Diversity, Binary System Failure and Sexual Orientation 101

            The foundation of the course is based on creating social change. The field of study has grown through the years and now the focus is on diversity. This entire course focuses on social change and introduces students to the field of queer studies. Through the multi-faceted lenses of the biological, social, and psychological factors that shape identities, behaviors and beliefs we will examine theories and critically analyze those that support and fail our ideals about the topics. It opens the door to diversity. Controversial issues concerning harassment and discrimination, today’s laws and sexual orientation will be explored. This introductory course will focus on two central questions: Is our society still binary based? Does sexual orientation matter?

            We do not live in a binary world because we are a multi-gendered society. Research has proven that almost every continent throughout history, cultures have acknowledged, valued, and incorporated more than two genders for instance, berdache and two-spirit. Terms such as transgender and gay are strictly new constructs that assume three things: that there are only two sexes (male/female), as many as two sexualities (gay/straight), and only two genders (man/woman). (Independent Television Service, 2014).

 Lesson 1 – 55 minutes

Introduction to Foundations of Terminology in Gender and Sexual Orientation


This lesson aims to introduce basic terms and meanings associated with the field of study frequently used by authors and society which will incorporate new concepts in which to learn.


  • Introduce the course and expectations of the student
  • Learners will be able to describe the basic meanings of the terminology
  • Students will be able to examine, explain and illustrate knowledge of terminology in the context of discourse using standardized means of communication

Relevant Teaching

            An ice breaker will be used to get to know my students using a Gay and Lesbian Trivia activity. The students will line up on one side of the room. I will pose a series of multiple choice questions. After I read all four alternatives, I will ask each student to hold their hand up when I read the answer they believe is correct. I will announce the right answer and ask the participants who held up their hand to take one step forward. (Student Action: Individual). Questions will range from what is the Greek letter symbolizing gay and lesbian activity? to what is a genderless term that can refer to LGBTIQQ people? to which term is sometimes used to include, transsexuals, transvestites and cross-dressers? After all the questions have been posed I will ask for a round of applause for those who had taken steps. I will give them each a Hershey’s chocolate kiss. I then invite those who did not take many steps or none at all to answer questions such as, for those who did not take any steps, how do you feel about the exercise?, for those who did take a few steps, how do you feel about the exercise?, what was the most frustrating part of this activity?, what was the most rewarding part of this activity? This is followed by partnering up with another student and discussing their reactions to the exercise. Student Action: Pairs.

            Also incorporated will be a pre-assessment to find out what learners already know called One Minute Papers as each student chooses one word out of the 78 words stemming from gender posted on a white board relating to gender and sexual orientation. They will write down one word and in a group discussion explain what they know about the word and its meaning. Student Action: Group.

            The third activity will be mind-mapping in the group setting by using a single word such as gender, transgender, intersexed or words like sexual orientation will be brought to the student’s attention as Melamed called this method Clustering: Moving from the simple to the complex. According to Frye (1963), “…any word can become a storm center of meanings, sounds, and associations, radiating out indefinitely like ripples in a pool” (Taylor, Marienau & Fiddler, 2000, p. 107). Through brainstorming, each student takes a turn in giving a definition of meaning which is done through personal reflections of prior experiences. Each new word association will branch out of the concept gender and will begin to produce patterns and groupings. The exercise will be useful in helping students to understand the terminology of the field by using it, discussing the meaning, and through reflection. Students will be able to understand social and cultural factors that influence their lives (Taylor, Marienau & Fiddler, 2000, para. p.105). A group discussion will enable discourse on what contributions were given that appeared new to the learner during the activity?, were there themes or patterns that had significance during the process?, and was the student feeling: uncomfortable, confused, or enlightened after the exercise. This is an opportunity for students to participate.

            The class will end by recapping and answering questions from the students and by having students write a one minute paper on their reactions to the lesson and post it in a journal.

Lesson 2 – 55 minutes

Gender and its Meaning


            The lesson will question what gender is to society and to the student while exploring briefly how gender is formed either through gender essentialism, gender environmentalism, or gender constructivism or a combination while taking an interdisciplinary look at gender in society. According to some authors gender is socially constructed through the expectation that is placed on an individual based on their sex. While others believe gender is biological and other’s lean towards the environment. Gender refers to psychological, social, and cultural differences between women, men, transgenders and intersexed.


  • Introduces gender roles and its impact beginning on a personal level and on a community and interpersonal level.
  • Students will be able to explore and describe differences in genders
  • Learners will connect theories and analyze the various concepts to gain better insight to the many genders that are part of our society

Relevant Teaching

Recall, Summarize, Question, Connect, and Comment on prior class.

            I will ask the group to write down their personal definition of sexual orientation and gender and compare definitions to the student next to them. Each pair will report their findings in a group discussion. This opens up dialogue while giving and receiving feedback.

            I will use the Instructor Action Storytelling activity discussed by Yee (2005) to explain and describe my personal concept of gender. I will openly discuss my story of marrying and divorcing a transman and being on an MSNBC documentary based on the topic of transpeople legally marrying. I will answer student’s questions as they arise.

            Another activity for this lesson will allow students the opportunity to reflect on how their beliefs, values and convictions came to be and how firmly they are committed to them. I will ask students to spend a few minutes writing down their answers to these questions on a “Where I Stand on the Issues” chart. Note: I will tell the students that their responses are for their own use and will not be collected or graded.
Where do I stand on the following issues?

o     Gender essentialism

o     Gender environmentalism

o    Gender constructivism

            After students have spent time reflecting on where they stand on the issues they will break up into groups of four. Each student will select one issue to discuss with the group members. Note: I will tell the students that the point here is not to defend their position, but rather to discuss how they arrived at their beliefs. This will give students the opportunity to practice what has been taught and will be followed by a group discussion on student reactions to the lesson and to the three theories.

            Students will be asked to write a one minute paper to be posted in their journal based on their any thoughts or feelings regarding the activity. This will give students the opportunity to practice.

Lesson 355 minutes/15 minute break/ 20 minutes

Social Constructions, Environment and Biology


This lesson digs deeper into the meaning of gender, surrounding issues, and the various theories

associated in the field. Topics will include the biological basis of gender distinctions versus the environmental factors.


  • To encourage students to become more informed on what gender is
  • Students will be able to distinguish between differences in gender and begin to make meaning of the context utilizing various theories

Relevant Teaching

Recall, Summarize, Question, Connect, and Comment on prior class

            Watching a documentary: Dr. Money and the Boy with No Penis (2004) followed by a group discussion on students reactions. The viewing of the documentary for students will be to practice what they have learned by taking notes and answering key questions for a written assignment.

1. How does gender environmentalism apply to David Reimer?

2. How does gender constructivism apply to David Reimer?

3. How does Gender essentialism apply to David Reimer?

4. Was David Reimer a boy or a girl? Why?

            Students will write a one minute paper to be posted in their journal based on their reactions to the documentary.

            A group discussion will follow and students will be asked to write a one minute paper to be posted in their journal based on their reactions to the class discussion. This will give students the opportunity to participate.

Lesson 4 – 55 minutes

Gender Stereotyping


This lesson aims to build on student’s understanding and knowledge of gender stereotyping. The point of this lesson is to explore different situations where gender stereotyping can alter an outcome, and can both physically and mentally damage a person. According to Henderson & Murdock (2011), “Therefore, students should gain a deeper understanding of how, for instance, their individually held beliefs affect the larger society and reinforce stereotypes and discrimination” (p. 2).


  • Learners will be able to identify and challenge gender stereotypes, emphasizing that gender is something that we can create in different ways
  • Students will investigate relevant issues of gender stereotyping and consider the social inequalities
  • Learners will be able to examine, describe, interpret, and identify gender stereotyping
  • Students willexplore and describe why gender stereotypes exist in today’s world

Relevant Teaching

Recall, Summarize, Question, Connect, and Comment on prior class

            Beyond pink and blue: This is an activity examining how gender stereotyping affects relationships. I will use a PowerPoint presentation as a visual presentation defining sexual orientation and gender, general historical context, discussing gender characteristics, gender roles that are enforced daily, and examples of international, and national, gender inequality.

            A group discussion will follow and students will be asked to write a one minute paper to be posted in their journal based on their reactions to the class discussion. This will give students the opportunity to participate.

Lesson 5 -55 minutes

Gender Inequality and Power in Relationships


            This lesson will utilize a critical approach in examining perspectives on gender inequality and the role it plays in contemporary society as it forms experiences of gender. Topics include gender inequality and oppression, the structures of gender inequality, and examples of gender equality from around the world. Gender bias is considered a construction of the socialization process and it is the extension of patriarchal ideology. It is discrimination or hate towards people (Kaur, 2012, para.). Also, I will introduce the critical pedagogy theory as it asks first about these systems of belief and action, who benefits? The primary preoccupation of critical pedagogy is with social injustice and how to transform inequitable, undemocratic, or oppressive institutions and social relations (Burbules & Berk, 1999, para. n.p.). It is the dialogue that cultural action for freedom is characterized by and its preeminent purpose is to conscientize the people (Freire 1970a, 47, cited in a Burbules & Rupert Berk, 1999, para. n.p.).


  • Students will be able to identify relations of power and inequalities between genders
  • Students will be able to explain the struggles of gender minority groups
  • Students will illustrate knowledge of the codification of gender inequality
  • Adult learners will discuss the different forms of gender oppression

Relevant Teaching

Recall, Summarize, Question, Connect, and Comment on prior class

            Prior to the class I would assign readings of several journal articles and a chapter from one of the texts. I will pair the students for a debate as Elliot (1993) commented, “For this reason and others, the use of the In-Class Debate in courses on gender is an effective teaching tool that allows exploration of both sides of relatively controversial issues (O’Kon & Sutz, 2004, n.p.). This will engage students in critical thinking and utilize research skills as they will have to defend a stance on gender and/or sexual orientation.

            On the day of the debate, the two students sit facing each other in front of the class. The debate begins with each student making an opening statement of no longer than 5 minutes, during which initial arguments for the pro and con sides are presented:

I believe that gender inequality is a natural consequence of biological differences and will always exist


Gender inequality is rooted in attitudes, society and culture and without effort, can be eliminated. (Amnesty International, 2013).

            All other students become the audience and can actively participate by asking questions and making comments. These students are held accountable for the material because questions about the debate topic are always included on a test. After opening statements, students can ask questions of the other adult learners and make arguments for their side. This will give students the opportunity to participate. They can also use their notes to refute arguments made by the opposing side. Students are encouraged to present information based on research rather than simply expressing personal opinions. Grades are assigned based on the quality of the prepared notes and how effectively each student used this information. At the conclusion of the debate, students are given an opportunity to communicate to the class which side of the debate topic they actually support and to express their real feelings. This “debriefing” is an important last step, serving a cathartic function for adult learners and permitting others to state their views more openly. Gender inequality is investigated through discourse (O’Kon, J. & Sutz, R., 2004. para. n.p.). Student Action: Pairs

            Students will be asked to write a one minute paper to be posted in their journal based on their reactions and what they have learned to the class.

Lesson 6 – 55 minutes

Discrimination and Prejudice: Gender and Sexual Orientation


            The lesson explores the history and different types of discrimination and prejudice against non-conforming genders and non-conforming sexual orientation individuals. I will incorporate critical theories and include topics such as, the new changes in the sex elements within the Equality Act (2010) regarding gender reassignment and sexual orientation. The newest change for sexual orientation is a reference to a person who has a particular protected characteristic is a reference to a person who is of a particular sexual orientation and a reference to persons who share a protected characteristic is a reference to persons who are of the same sexual orientation reported by a legislative website.


  • Students will be able to demonstrate awareness, recognize, and identify prejudices and discrimination against gender and sexual orientation.
  • Learners will be able to describe and explain discrimination and prejudice against gender and sexual orientation
  • Students will be able to understand the underlying meaning behind prejudice
  • Students will be able to propose approaches to create change and advance social justice
  • Learners will analyze and examine the prevailing social concepts about gender, the power inequities which is characteristic , and the ramifications of social norms

Relevant Teaching

Recall, Summarize, Question, Connect, and Comment on prior class

            The purpose of this transformational learning tool, Guided Imagery as an activity can be used for the student to “put yourself in someone else’s shoes” and to look through a different and critical lens regarding discrimination and prejudice while developing empathy. The purpose is to open the door to straight adult learners in order for them to experience the societal stigma of being gay and coming out in today’s contemporary society. It is bringing the student closer to understanding and feeling what it’s like to be an “other.” Jost (2004) described this activity as an “an imaginary experience [that] feels so real that it can include sight, sound, smell, taste, touch and emotion”, and “it often uses images that are symbolic” (Henderson & Murdock, 2011, p.2). How it feels to be different is an exercise in Guided Imagery written by Adams:

            I ask the students to please get comfortable. If they chose they can close their eyes and sit back and relax. Concentrate as I take you to a world very different from the one in which we live—a world in which you are straight, but everyone else is not. In this world, almost all of the teachers and students in your school are gay. All of your friends and family members are gay; most of the doctors, judges, politicians and world leaders are gay. Celebrities are all gay, as are all of the priests, rabbis, Sufis, and imams. In this world, all of the books and television programs are about gay characters, and marriage is legal only for gay couples.

            Of course, there are some straight people, but they are ridiculed and whispered about. Clearly, there is something really bad about being straight. You have heard things like: straight people are sick; they are obsessed with sex. Programs on television sometimes explore the curious ‘straight lifestyle,’ describing how straight people are always getting pregnant or infected with HIV. In these programs, straights are like the characters out of an old circus sideshow—exposed for their oddities. Your friends have told you that straight people are often child abusers and you have overheard your neighbor saying that straights are emotionally disturbed and have no morals.

            Last year there was a big problem in your town because someone accused one of the teachers of being straight—parents don’t want straight people to teach their children—so, the teacher was fired even though she insisted that she was gay. There are few, if any, protections for straight people. You have heard that straights can’t lead scout troops, and that straights can be fired from their jobs or kicked out of the military if people find out about them. There’s even a story you heard last week about a kid who was kicked out of his own home because he told his dad he might be straight.

            This is all very scary for you because you are beginning to think that you, too, might be straight. More than anything in the world, you want your parents to love you, to accept you as you are. What will they say if you tell them that you might be straight?! The thought of telling them—of telling anyone—makes you sick to your stomach. Who can you turn to? Your brother’s talk nonstop about how cute the quarterback on the local football team is. Your sister has a crush on the latest supermodel. You wish you had a crush on someone of your own sex, but you don’t! It’s people of the opposite sex that attract you. No one in your family has these feelings—in fact, no one you know has them, so you continue to hide this scariest of secrets. Somewhere deep inside you understand that, if people found out who you really are, they would ridicule you. Worse yet—they might not love you anymore!

            Sometimes you think that you have to tell someone about this secret. You spend hours thinking about whom to approach. You remember when you were a kid hearing your dad tell nasty jokes about straights at the dinner table and everyone laughed. So, you can’t tell your family. You remember your family’s religious leader telling the congregation that being straight is unnatural and immoral and the whole congregation nodded in agreement. So telling the religious leader is definitely out. In health class you learned that it is normal to feel physically and emotionally attracted to people of your same sex. No one talked about being attracted to someone of the opposite sex. You are sure that what you are feeling cannot be normal and that no one can help you. Last week in math class, two of the popular athletes started taunting this shy kid and calling him ‘straight.’ The teacher just ignored it. You heard her laugh the week before, however, when the kid in the second row called out in disgust that the poem the class was supposed to read for English was ‘so straight.’

            All of this makes you feel really isolated and afraid. You are unsure what to do. Where can you turn? Who can you talk to? You can’t talk about your feelings at home; your school feels unsafe; you don’t trust your friends to support you. Having this secret is a little like having a piranha inside—it keeps eating away at your self-esteem, so that after a while you hate how you feel and you hate yourself, too!

            Ask the participants to sit up, open their eyes if they were closed, and reconnect with the group. Ask each participant to turn to the person next to her/him and take a few minutes to talk about how it would feel to live in such a world and what it would feel like if they had to keep so many secrets about themselves. Then, ask the pairs to discuss what those feelings might lead them to do if this were a real situation.

            Call the group back together and ask for volunteers who are willing to share their thoughts and feelings with the whole group. Write their responses on a white board. Add checkmarks when other participants offer the same or similar responses. Expect to hear answers like: feeling angry, sad, and isolated; dropping out of school; staying home from school; using alcohol and other drugs; breaking the rules; and feeling depressed. If students do not suggest these feelings and responses, suggest them yourself.

            I will explain that while the situation is, of course, fictional, it mirrors the real world faced by many lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersexed and questioning people. Say that, because they are often understandably afraid to ‘come out’ (reveal their sexual orientation) to others, gay, lesbian, and bisexual students, transgender and intersexed are forced to keep many parts of their lives secret. Sometimes keeping so many secrets leads to their dropping out of school. Say that, eventually, most gay, lesbian and bisexual, transgender and intersexed people, including people, find ways to tell the people who are important to them and find friends who are supportive of them. The struggle to decide who is safe to tell lasts all of one’s life, because there is so much ignorance and fear about homosexuality in our society.

A group discussion will include questions such as:

How would it feel to have to hide something as important and as basic as your sexual orientation, (the sex of the people to whom you are romantically, emotionally, and physically attracted)?

What were the first things you remember learning about homosexuality? Do you remember learning anything from your family? Friends? Community of faith? Was what you learned positive or negative?

Have you ever learned about or discussed issues of sexual orientation in class? What did you learn?

What movie or television character have you recently seen that is LGBTIQQ? How has that affected your thinking?

How would it feel to need to hide from other people your gender or the sex of those to whom you are attracted? How would that affect your life?

            Think-Pair-Share is the next activity. The purpose of the Think-Pair-Share activity is for students to participate in a discussion on prejudice and its effect on society and people’s civil rights. Student’s pair up to discuss the following questions:

What happens when people are judged by the way they look?

What is prejudice? (List examples of how prejudice causes some people to stereotype others.)

What are some examples of prejudice resulting in unfair treatment of people?

Why do you think some people are prejudiced?

What is tolerance? (List examples of ways people practice tolerance or respect toward others.) What do people gain or lose from respecting or not respecting other people’s diversity?

What do you think the United States and the world in general gain or lose from not respecting diversity?

What are some things that can happen when people practice intolerance over a long period of time?

What can people do to help create an environment that encourages respect for all persons?

            A group discussion will follow and students will be asked to write a one minute paper to be posted in their journal based on their reactions and their feelings on the topic. This will give students the opportunity to participate.


Lesson 7 – 55 minutes

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity


            This lesson will incorporate the historic, philosophic, psychological concepts, theories, gender, sex, and love. Topics include the impact of pressures on the development and expression of sexual orientations, biological developmental, and social influences on sexual orientations across the lifespan (Sarah Lemons, 2012, para.), gender identification, the social construction of sexual orientation, gay and lesbian identities, coming out, AIDS, pre- and post-Stonewall activism, transgender issues, hate crimes, bisexual and hybrid identities, and new voices. (Oakton Community College, para.). Gender is a process, day to day stratification system and structure. Daily actions reinforce gender, stratification equals men as a group have more status and power than women. Women are treated as the “other” and structure divides work in the home and economic production. It legitimates those in authority and organizes sexuality and emotional life (Kaur, 2012, para. n.p.).


  • Learners will be able to investigate factors that influence gender identity including sexual orientation
  • Students will be able to critically analyze issues pertaining to sexual orientation that influence adult learner’s decisions concerning sexual behavior.
  • Learners will be able to identify representations of gender identity and sexuality orientation
  • Students will examine the basic and functional traits of sexuality the social and cultural aspects of gender identity and sexual orientation

Relevant Teaching

Recall, Summarize, Question, Connect, and Comment on prior class

            I will use the Instructor Storytelling lecture to illustrate a personal real life situation of prejudice that occurred against my ex-husband (a transman) and I when we were at a family Easter celebration resulting in a hate crime. I will discuss theories that apply and will answer questions as they arise from the students.

            In using the Real World activity by Yee (2005) I will post the names of the theories and the authors on a whiteboard that I feel will make strong connections to the lesson. I will also list a few that are contrary. I will divide the class into groups of three and ask them to discuss definitions, theories, associations, and applications of concepts that were addressed in the lecture. One student from each group will address the class to discuss and define one theory that could address the occurrence of a hate crime followed by a group discussion. Student Action: Group.

            Non-gender specific dating conversation is an activity that offers the student the opportunity to practice what has been taught. Participants will gain a better understanding of the challenges faced by gay, lesbian, and bisexual, transgender and intersexed people when discussing dating, partners, or significant others amongst peers, friends, family and co-workers that they do not feel comfortable sharing their sexual orientation with. (USC Student Affairs, 2014, para).

            Each participant will partner up with another participant in the room to discuss the last date they had with a significant other or friend using non-gender specific language. The following words are not allowed to be used:

            He                   His

She                  Her

Boy                 Man

Girl                  Woman

            Each participant will have about 5 minutes to discuss a recent date. A group discussion will focus on the experience and its difficulties. The purpose is to have the student view gender identity and sexual orientation with a critical lens.

            The class will end by recapping and answering questions from the students and by having students write a one minute paper on their reactions and feelings about the lesson and post it in a journal.



            The assessment strategies will include of discussions, written/oral assignments, active and prepared participation in class, journalizing reflections, quantitative and qualitative testing and summative assessments. These will incorporate observing the learners throughout the lesson, testing through matching, multiple-choice or fill in the blank questions which will be conducted at the end of the unit resulting in a grade and a student project.

            The activities support each other as they build a stronger knowledge base for the adult learner. I begin with the terminology, the Gay and Lesbian Trivia opened the door to the study incorporating words that were used in the first lesson. The pre-assessment reinforced the prior lessons as words were focused on in dialogue. The mind mapping exercise will be useful in helping students to understand the terminology of the field by using it, discussing the meaning, and through reflection. In the activity writing down personal definitions of words opens up dialogue while giving and receiving feedback. In the Instructor Action Storytelling activity I am helping students connect terminology with reality and a real person. I believe in taking the holistic approach as I am teaching and learning simultaneously like Freire (1970, p. 80) had talked about and as Kasworm stated, “Holistic learning encompasses all of these various roads, including cognitive, somatic, affective, and spiritual domains along with artistic and transpersonal domains (p. 36).

            The next activity for this lesson will allow students the opportunity to reflect on how their beliefs, values and convictions regarding gender and sexual orientation will make critical connections as they reflect on what they have learned as it is building on the concept of gender. The next activity is watching a documentary: Dr. Money and the Boy with No Penis (2004) which is an opportunity for students to practice what they have learned in a written assignment. Beyond pink and blue was the next activity that supports the purpose where students examine, and distinguish between differences in gender and begin to make meaning of the context. The in class debate activity will engage students in critical thinking and utilize research skills to prepare to defend a position on gender and/or sexual orientation. Put yourself in someone else’s shoes is a storytelling activity and an extension of the prior lessons as it offers an opportunity to switch places with an individual and through imagery to see, hear, think and feel as the “other”.

Again I used an Instructor Storytelling lecture to illustrate a personal real life situation of prejudice which connects to the discrimination of gender. The next, Real World activity addresses theories that have been taught and the students begin to use them in practice.

The Non-gender specific dating activity engages the student in a dilemma in which non-conforming individuals must face. This is similar to put yourself in someone else’s shoes as I am encouraging new experiences in which to learn, reflect and grow. Each of these activities is like the building of my chili cheese dip.

            In summation, there are layers in which I create my unit and the dip staring with cream cheese, then a can of Hormel chili without beans then spreading out shredded sharp cheddar cheese on top, then black olives, green chili peppers on top, and last chopped tomatoes. My activities carry the students through the unit, layer by layer. If I did my job well, then it will be a happy ending for all.


Adams, F. (2005), How It Feels to Be Different: Exercise in Guided Imagery. Retrieved from,

Beyond pink and blue: A lesson plan examining how gender stereotyping affects relationships.

(n. d). Retrieved from

Burbules, N. C. & Berk, R.(1999). Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy: Relations,

Differences, and Limits. Critical Theories in Education, New York: Routledge.

Retrieved from,

Freire, P. (1993). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Rev. 30th Anniversary ed. New York: Continuum. Retrieved September 2, 2013, from

Henderson, A. C. & Murdock, J. L. (2011). Getting Students Beyond Ideologies: Using Heterosexist Guided imagery in the Classroom.

Retrieved from

Kasworm, C., Rose, A. & Ross-Gordon, J.M. (2010). Handbook of Adult and Continuing

Education. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.

Kaur, G. (2012). Gender as a social construct gender roles gender bias in educational practice.

Retrieved from

-construct (2010). Equality Act 2010. Retrieved from,

Lemons, S. (2012). Sexual Orientation Concentration. Retrieved from


Oakton Community College. (2014). Gender, Identity and Literature. Retrieved from,

O’Kon, J. & Sutz, R. (2004, August). Using In-Class Debates to Teach Gender Issues in

Psychology. E-xcellence in Teaching, 6, n.p. Retrieved from,

Taylor, K., Marienau, C., & Fiddler, M. (2000). Developing Adult Learners:

Strategies for Teachers and Trainers. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

USC Student Affairs. (n. d.). Educational Activities. Retrieved from,

Yee, K. (2005). Interactive Techniques. Retrieved from,


Image: Rethinking the Day of Silence. (2013). Retrieved from,

(2014). Lesson Plan: Examining Prejudice. Retrieved from,


 hand_rightAnnotated Bibliography

Adams, F. (2005), How It Feels to Be Different: Exercise in Guided Imagery. Retrieved from,

The author presented a story within his Guided imagery. It is a story that changes the life of one person as they became the other, an outsider to family, friends and society. It is written with deep emotion as a straight person who finds themselves as a minority associated with discrimination and prejudice as the world is gay. Adams (2005) discusses what an “other” feels, “All of this makes you feel really isolated and afraid. You are unsure what to do. Where can you turn? Who can you talk to?” It is useful to my unit to do an activity similar to role playing to help students reflect on their own actions.

Henderson, A. C. & Murdock, J. L. (2011). Getting Students Beyond Ideologies: Using   Heterosexist Guided imagery in the Classroom.

Retrieved from,

The authors examined the impact of guided imagery as a transformational learning tool. Henderson & Murdock (2011), reported, “Guided imagery has been recognized as an effective pedagogical technique (Drake 1996;Galyean and Krishnamurti 1981) as one creates images in the students’ minds by outlining a topic or area of focus to enhance learning and encourage critical thinking (Wheatley et al.1989) (p.2). The benefit of this exercise is allow a conforming gender and sexual orientation adult learner to experience what it’s like to be an “other.” The study discussed Heterosexism and Homophobia, Homophobic attitudes and heterosexist ideologies on college campuses exist everywhere. It is useful to my unit as it is an activity that erases barriers of age, race, education, gender, and sexual orientation.

O’Kon, J. & Sutz, R. (2004, August). Using In-Class Debates to Teach Gender Issues in

Psychology. E-xcellence in Teaching, 6, n.p. Retrieved from,

This brief study begins by addressing the fact that our would is ever changing and becoming more complex with the altering of gender roles as it is recognized by educators as O’Kon (2004) commented, “It is this diversity in perspective that sets the stage for a lively exchange of ideas in the classroom” (n.p.). The authors chose to show two formats of debate activities for the classroom setting to help in guide teachers in the field of gender since it is an effective teaching tool that explores both side of a controversial subject. (Elliot, 1993, cited in O’Kon & Sutz, 2004, para. n. p.). It is useful to my unit as different lenses can be worn by the students in which to reflect upon and learn from.

(2014). Lesson Plan: Examining Prejudice. Retrieved from,

Viewing Two Towns of Jasper is suggested by the author(s) to make a connection to four of the activities that are presented and based on prejudice. The objectives are to evaluate personal hidden biases, synthesize information from a variety of sources, analyze convictions, and commitment to social issue. (para. n.p). Activity four in particular is based on reflection. “The purpose of this activity is for students to consider how they have arrived at their convictions and how firmly they are committed to their beliefs” (n. p). In order to create social change we must first look within. It is useful to my unit as it gives students time to reflect on the hows and whys of their own beliefs and values.